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Belzec (pronounced [ˈbɛu̯ʐɛt͡s]) was a Nazi German extermination camp built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the 3 Operation Reinhard, the plan to eradicate Polish Jewry, a key part of the "Final Solution" 3 entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.
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Belzec extermination camp - Wikipedia
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Property Line 0 25’ 50’ Graphic Scale (Center line of right-of-way) SIDE STREET INTERIOR SIDE SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCE SINGLE FAMILY
0 0 Location of Bełżec lower centre on the map of German extermination camps marked with black and white skulls.
The camp operated from 17 March 1942 to the end of June 1943.
It was situated about 0.
The burning of exhumed corpses on five and bone crushing continued until March 1943.
Between 430,000 and 500,000 are believed to have been murdered by the SS at Bełżec.
This makes it the third-deadliest extermination camp, exceeded only by and.
Only seven Jews with the camp's survived World War II; and only one of them became known, thanks to his postwar testimony submitted officially.
The lack of viable witnesses who could testify about the camp's operation is the primary reason why Bełżec is so очень Монитор LG 22MP48D спасибо despite the enormous number of victims.
Bełżec fell within the in accordance with the against Poland.
Originally, the was brought into the area in April 1940 for the construction of of the German strategic plan codenamed against the Soviet advance beyond following the.
In the territory of the so-calledthe city of became the hub of early Nazi transfer of about 95,000 German, Austrian, and Polish Jews expelled from the West and the General Government area.
The prisoners were put to work by the SS in the нажмите для продолжения of anti-tank ditches Burggraben along the.
The Burggraben project was abandoned with the onset of.
On 13 October 1941, gave the -and-Police Leader of Lublin, SS an order to start the area aroundwhich entailed the removal of Jews from the areas of future settlement.
The first steps were taken between mid-September and mid-October 1941, and the construction began around November 1.
The site near Bełżec was chosen for several reasons: it was situated on the border between the District and the German formed after Operation Barbarossa.
It could "process" the Jews of both regions.
The ease of transportation was secured by the railroad junction at nearby and the highway between Lublin-Stadt and Lemberg.
The northern boundary of the planned killing centre consisted of an anti-tank trench constructed a year earlier.
The ditch, excavated originally for military purposes was likely to serve as the first mass grave.
Globocnik brought in who was a civil engineer by profession and the camp construction expert in the SS.
Work had commenced in early November 1941, using local builders overseen by a squad of.
The installation, resembling a railway transit point for the purpose of forced labour, was finished before Christmas.
It featured insulated barracks for showering among several other structures.
Some local men were released.
The SS completed the work in February 1942 by fitting in the tank engine and the exhaust piping systems for gassing.
The trial killings were performed in early March.
The "Final Solution" was formulated in late January 1942 by the leading proponents of gassing who were unaware of Bełżec's existenceincluding Wilhelm Dolpheid, Ludwig Losacker, Helmut Tanzmann and Governor Otto Wächter.
Dolpheid negotiated with the SS-Oberführer Viktor Brack in Berlin for the use of the personnel in the process.
Only two months later, on 17 March 1942, the daily gassing operations at Bełżec extermination camp began with the T4 leadership brought in from Germany under the guise of OT.
Wirth had the leading position as the supervisor of six extermination hospitals in the Reich; Hering was the non-medical chief of the in as well as at the.
Christian Wirth had been a killing expert from the beginning as participant of the first T-4 gassing of handicapped people at the.
He was, therefore, an obvious choice to be the first commandant of the first stationary of in the.
It was his proposal to use the exhaust gas emitted by the internal-combustion engine of a motorcar as the killing agent instead of the bottled 3, because no delivery from outside the camp would be required as in the case of the T-4 method.
However, Wirth decided that the comparable technology of mobile used at before December 1941 and by the in the Easthad proven insufficient for the projected number of victims from the arriving at the new railway approach ramp.
Wirth developed his method on the basis of experience he had gained in the fixed gas chambers of Aktion T4.
Even though became broadly available later on, Wirth decided against it.
Zyklon B was produced by a private firm for both Birkenau, and Majdanek nearby, but their infrastructure differed.
Bełżec was an camp meant to circumvent the problems of supply, and instead, rely on a system of extermination based on ordinary and readily available killing agents.
For economic and practical reasons, Wirth had almost the same carbon monoxide gas used in T-4, generated with the torque of a large engine.
Although Holocaust witnesses' testimonies differ as to the type of fuel, ' postwar affidavit indicates that most probably it was a petrol engine with a system of pipes delivering exhaust fumes into the gas chambers.
For very small transports of Jews and Gypsies over a short distance, a minimized version of the gas van technology was also used in Bełżec.
The T-4 SS man and first operator of the gas chambers,rebuilt an Opel-Blitz post-office vehicle with the help of a local craftsman into a small gas van.
The 3 zones were completely screened from each other and connected only by a narrow corridor called der Schlauch, or "the Tube".
All arriving Jews disembarked from the trains at a platform in the reception zone.
They were met by SS-Scharführer Fritz Jirmann Irmann standing at the podium with a 3, and were told by the men that they had arrived at a transit camp.
To ready themselves for the communal shower, women and children were separated from men.
The disrobed new arrivals were forced to run along a fenced-off path to the gas chambers, leaving them no time to absorb where they were.
The process was conducted as quickly as possible amid constant screaming by the Germans.
At times, a handful of Jews were selected at the ramp to perform all the manual work involved with extermination.
The wooden gas chambers—which were built with double walls that 3 insulated by earth packed between them—were disguised нажмите чтобы перейти the shower barracks, so that the victims would not realize the true purpose of the facility.
The gassing itself, which took about 30 minutes, was conducted by Hackenholt with the Ukrainian guards and a Jewish aide.
Removing the bodies from the gas chambers, burying them, sorting and repairing the victims' clothing for shipping was performed by Sonderkommando work-details.
The 3 for the Jewish prisoners and the barracks for the Ukrainian guards were separated from the "processing" zone behind an embankment of the old Otto Line with the barb-wire on top.
Most Jews from the corpse-unit the Totenjuden were killed periodically and replaced by new arrivals, so that they would neither organize a revolt nor survive to tell about the camp's purpose.
The German SS and the administration were housed in two cottages outside the camp.
Known structures are gone except for the brick-and-mortar garage and auto-shop for the SS, whose foundations still exist today lower left.
Across the fence leftseparated from the main camp, the accommodations with kitchen as well as sorting and packing yard for victims possessions.
Dismantled barracks can still be seen surrounded by walking sand.
The railway unloading platform, with two parallel ramps, marked with red arrow.
A smaller arrow shows the holding pen for Jews still waiting to be "processed".
Location of gas chambers marked with a cross.
Undressing and hair-cropping area marked with rectangle, with fenced-out "Sluice" into the woods, obstructing the view of the surroundings.
Cremation pyres and ash pits yellowupper half.
The Bełżec history can be divided into two or three periods of operation.
The first one, from 17 March to the end of June 1942 was marked by the existence of smaller gas chambers housed in barracks made of planks and insulated with sand and rubber.
Bełżec was the first killing centre of Operation Reinhard.
There were many technical difficulties with the early attempts at mass extermination.
The gassing installation was imperfect and usually only one or two rooms were working, causing a backlog.
In the first three months 80,000 people were killed and buried in pits covered with a shallow layer of earth.
The victims were Jews deported from the and its vicinity.
The original three gas chambers were insufficient for completing the task at hand.
The second phase of extermination began in July 1942, when the new gas chambers were built of brick and mortar on a lightweight foundation, thus enabling the facility to "process" Jews of the two largest agglomerations nearby including the and the.
The wooden gas chambers were dismantled.
The new building 24 m long and 10 m wide had six gas chambers, insulated with the cement walls.
It could handle over 1,000 victims at a time.
The design was soon imitated by the other two Operation Reinhard extermination camps: and.
There was a hand-painted sign on the new building that read Stiftung Hackenholt or Hackenholt Foundation named after the SS man who designed it.
Until December 1942 at least 350,000 to 400,000 Jews were murdered in the new gas chambers.
One Wehrmacht sergeant at the train station in Rzeszow,recorded in his diary a conversation with a German policeman on 30 August 1942.
The told him: "trains filled with Jews pass almost daily through the railway yards and leave immediately on the way to the camp.
They return swept clean most often the same evening.
The buried remains often swelled in the heat as a result of and the escape of gases.
The surface layer of soil split.
In 3 1942 the exhumation and burning of all corpses was ordered to cover up the crime on direct orders fromthe deputy of in Berlin.
The bodies were placed on made from rail tracks, splashed with petrol and burned over wood.
The bones were collected and crushed.
The last period of camp's operation continued until June 1943 when the area was ploughed over, and disguised as a farm.
He later moved to the site, to oversee till the end.
After the in 1943, he was transferred by Globocnik to serve along with him in his hometown of.
They set up the there, killing up to 5,000 prisoners and sending 69 to Auschwitz.
Wirth received the in April 1944.
The following month he was killed whilst traveling in an open-top car in what is today western.
After the camp's closure, his successor there SS-Hauptsturmführer was transferred to temporarily until the massacres of theand later followed Wirth and Globocnik to Trieste.
After the war ended, Hering served for a short time as the chief of Criminal Police of in the American zone, and died in autumn 1945 in a hospital.
Bełżec extermination camp SS staff, 1942.
Right to left:Artur Dachsel, Karl Gringers.
Left uniformed : Friedrich Tauscher, Karl Alfred Schluch second Only seven former members of the SS-Sonderkommando Bełżec were indicted 20 years later in.
Of these, just one, leader of the SS guard platoonwasand sentenced to four years and six months in prison, of which he served half before being released a free man.
Followingall of them underwent special training at the before they were posted as "Hiwis" German letterword for Hilfswilligen, lit.
They provided the bulk of Wachmänner collaborators in all major killing sites of the "".
In written at the hotel while in the 3 custody, Gerstein described his visit to Bełżec on August 19 or 18, 1942.
He witnessed there the unloading of 45 cattle cars crowded with 6,700 Jews deported from the less than a hundred kilometres away, of whom 1,450 were already dead on arrival from suffocation and thirst.
The remaining new arrivals were marched naked in batches to the gas chambers; beaten with whips to squeeze tighter inside.
Unterscharführer Hackenholt was making great efforts to get the engine running.
But it doesn't go.
I can see he is afraid because I am present at a disaster.
Yes, I see it all and I wait.
My stopwatch showed it all, 50 minutes, 70 minutes, and the diesel did not start.
The people wait 3 the gas chambers.
They can be heard weeping 'like in the synagogue', says Professorhis eyes glued to a window in the wooden door.
Furious, Captain Wirth lashes the Ukrainian assisting Hackenholt twelve, thirteen times, in the face.
After 2 hours and 49 minutes—the stopwatch recorded it all—the diesel started.
Another 25 minutes нажмите для деталей />Many were already dead, 3 could be seen through the small window because an electric lamp inside lit up the chamber for a few moments.
After 28 minutes, only a few were still alive.
Finally, after 32 minutes, all were dead.
Dentists hammered out gold teeth, bridges and crowns.
In the midst of them читать больше Captain Wirth.
He was in his element, and showing me a large can full of teeth, he said: "See for yourself the weight of that gold!
It's only from yesterday and the day before.
You can't imagine what we find every day—dollars, diamonds, gold.
You'll see for yourself!
Cemented rails built in place of the original unloading ramp, lead in all directions from which the Jews were brought in.
The field of crushed stone serves as grave marker; the entire perimeter contains human ashes mixed with sand.
In the last phase of the camp operations, all prior mass graves were unearthed by a mechanical digger.
It was the result of direct orders from the Nazi leadership possibly from Himmlersoon after the Soviet of 22,000 Polish soldiers was discovered in Russia.
At Katyn, the German-led exhumations by the international revealed details of the mass murder by examining preserved bodies.
The Germans attempted to use the commission's results to drive a wedge between the Allies.
All corpses buried at Bełżec were secretly exhumed and then gradually cremated on long open-air pyres, part of the country-wide plan known as the.
Bone fragments were pulverized and mixed with the ashes to hide the evidence of mass murder.
The site was planted with small firs and wild lupines and all camp structures were dismantled.
The last train with 300 Jewish Sonderkommando prisoners who performed the cleanup operation departed to for gassing in late June 1943.
They were told that they were being evacuated to Germany instead.
Any equipment that could be reused was taken by the German and Ukrainian personnel to the concentration camp.
Wirth's house and the neighboring SS building, which had been the property of the Polish Railway before the war, were not demolished.
After locals started digging for valuables in Bełżec, the Germans installed a permanent guard so that their mass killings would not come to light.
SS personnel with work commandos turned the camp into a fake farm with one Ukrainian SS guard assigned to settle there permanently with his family.
This model for guarding and disguising murder sites was also adopted in and death camps.
This number became widely accepted in the literature.
Józef Marszałek calculated 500,000.
British historian once gave an estimate of about 800,000 based on his investigations at the site.
German historians Dieter Pohl and Peter Witte, gave an estimate of 480,000 to 540,000.
Michael Tregenza stated that it would have been possible to have buried up to one million 3 on the site although the true death toll is probably around half that number.
This document, the so-calledconfirms 434,508 Jews were killed at Bełżec in 1942 The crucial piece of evidence came from the declassified sent to Berlin on 11 January 1943 by Operation Reinhard's Chief of Staff.
It was published in 2001 by Stephen Tyas and Peter Witte.
The radio telegram indicated that 434,508 Jews were deported to Bełżec through December 31, 1942 based on numbers shared by the SS with the state-run.
The camp had ceased to operate for mass killings by then.
The cleanup commando of up to 500 prisoners remained in the camp, disinterring the bodies and burning them.
The Sonderkommando was transported to around August 1943 and murdered on arrival.
The difference between the "low-end" figure and other estimates can be explained by the lack of exact and detailed sources on the deportations statistics.
Arad writes, that he had to rely, in part, on books of Jewish ghettos, which were not guaranteed to give the exact estimates of the numbers of deportees.
He also relied on partial German railway documentation, from which the number of trains could be gleaned.
Some assumptions had to be made about the number of persons per each.
The were predetermined with the carrying capacity of each trainset set up at 50 boxcars, each loaded with 50 prisoners, which was routinely disregarded by the SS cramming trains up to 200% capacity for the same price.
The Hoefle's numbers were repeated in suggesting their common origin.
Other sources, like Westermann's report, contain the exact data about the number of deported persons, but only estimates of the numbers of those who died in transit.
Under the ground passage built in place of former "Sluice" into the gas chambers, evokes the feelings of no escape Belzec extermination camp memorial.
During the construction of the Mausoleum trees planted by the SS were removed and only the oaks, that witnessed the genocide, were retained.
Belzec extermination camp museum Grave digging at the site resumed when the German guard fled.
In 1945, the Lublin District Commission for the Investigation of German Crimes conducted an investigation into the crimes in Bełżec.
The mass graves at the site were dug up by gravediggers seeking gold and valuables.
In 1945 provincial authorities and the Jewish Committee discussed the continuing plunder of the site.
In 1945 Szmul Pelc, the chair of the committee of the Jewish Committee, was murdered by local gravediggers.
Investigations of grave digging continued through the late 1950s.
While Lublin District Commission published the results of their investigation in 1947, the site itself continued to be neglected and memory of the site was suppressed as very few of the camp's victims were Polish, and there were rarely survivors of the camp's primarily Jewish victims.
Beginning in the second half of the 1950s the pursuit by Germany itself of the German perpetrators revived interest in the site.
The Soviet trials of Russian camp personnel, held in and in the early 1960s soon followed.
In the 1960s, the grounds of the former Bełżec camp were fenced off.
The first monuments were erected, although the area did not correspond to the actual size of the camp during its operation due to lack of proper evidence and modern forensic research.
Some commercial development took place in areas formerly belonging to it.
Also, its remote location on the Polish-Soviet border meant that few people visited the site before the and the return of democracy.
It was largely forgotten and poorly maintained.
Following the collapse of the Communist dictatorship in 1989, the situation began to change.
As the number of visitors to Poland interested in Holocaust sites increased, more of them came to Bełżec.
In the 1990s the camp appeared badly neglected, even though it was cleaned by students from Bełżec school.
In the late 1990s extensive investigations were carried out on the camp grounds to determine precisely the camp's extent and provide greater understanding of its operation.
Buildings constructed after the war on the camp grounds were removed.
In 2004, Bełżec became a new branch of the.
New official monuments commemorating the camp's victims were unveiled.
One of the prime benefactors behind the new memorial at Bełżec wasan American Holocaust survivor whose own parents were murdered in Bełżec, raising этом TF Est.
1968 T-Mechanic Запонки CMO-SS99 TF Est. 1968 Запонки CMO-SS99 5 million dollars with the help of the Polish government and the American Jewish Committee.
Another prominent Holocaust survivor with a connection to Bełżec is philanthropist Anita Ekstein, former national chair of Canada.
Anita Ekstein was born in the area and was hidden as a child by during.
Her mother, Ethel Helfgott, was among the victims in Bełżec.
Anita Ekstein has led many groups of students on educational trips to Poland where she shares her Holocaust story.
She first visited Bełżec in 2005, a year after the new memorial opened, and discovered her mother's name inscribed on the memorial wall on Mother's Day.
The team identified the railway sidings and remains of a number of buildings.
They also found 33 mass graves, the largest of which had an area of 480 m 2 5,200 sq ft and was 4.
The total volume of these mass graves was estimated at 21,000 m 3 0.
Air photo analysis suggests that these 33 mass graves were not the only graves at Bełżec extermination camp.
All graves discovered by archaeologists contained large amounts of human cremation remains, and 10 graves also contained unburned human remains, which Prof.
Kola described as follows: "Deposition of corpses in the water-bearing layers or in very damp structure of the ground just above that layer, with the difficulty of air penetration, because of the depth, caused the changes of the deposited bodies into.
In some graves the layer of corpses reached the thickness of ca 2,00m.
Of those who escaped, only seven were still alive at the war's end.
An unknown number of prisoners jumped out from the moving on the way to the camp, at their own peril.
The railway embankments used to be lined with bodies.
There were only two Jewish escapees from the camp who shared their testimony with the Polish Main Commission for the Investigation of Nazi German Crimes.
They were and Chaim Hirszman.
While Reder submitted a deposition in January 1946 inHirszman was assassinated in March 1946 at his home, by so-called "", from the organisation.
Following the war's end, Hirszman had joineda secret police organisation created by the newto crush the anti-communist underground.
MBP used methods including torture, extrajudicial executions, and the of over 50,000 political prisoners.
Hirszman was killed before he was able to give a full account of his experiences at the camp.
Rudolf Reder summarized his account of the Bełżec camp imprisonment in the book Bełżec, published in 1946 by the Jewish Historical Committee in Kraków with Preface by Nella Rost, his editor and literary helper.
The book was illustrated with a map bya Holocaust survivor who studied at the.
It was reprinted in 1999 by the with translation by Margaret M.
In 1960, Reder's testimony became part of the German preparations for the in Munich against eight former SS members of the extermination camp personnel.
The accused were set free except forwho was sentenced to 4½ years of imprisonment, and released after serving half of his sentence.
The total of 750 victims per gas chamber was provided by the camp's commandant Christian Wirth to a company of high-ranking SS officers who visited the camp in the middle of Aug.
The ссылка на подробности figure was stated in his at face value.
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Translated from Polish by Ewa Józefowicz and Mateusz Józefowicz.
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Obóz Zagłady w Bełżcu Belzec extermination camp museum.
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Powstanie Państwowego Muzeum Creation of the Museum.
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Obóz zagłady w Bełżcu w relacjach ocalonych i zeznaniach polskich świadków Testimonies of survivors and witnesses.
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